Publications -- multiplex

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  The physics of spreading processes in multilayer networks

Nature Physics - doi:10.1038/nphys3865 - 2016

M. De Domenico, C. Granell, M. A. Porter, A. Arenas


Despite the success of traditional network analysis, standard networks provide a limited representation of complex systems, which often include different types of relationships (or ‘multiplexity’) between their components. Such structural complexity has a significant effect on both dynamics and function. Throwing away or aggregating available structural information can generate misleading results and be a major obstacle towards attempts to understand complex systems. The recent multilayer approach for modelling networked systems explicitly allows the incorporation of multiplexity and other features of realistic systems. It allows one to couple different structural relationships by encoding them in a convenient mathematical object. It also allows one to couple different dynamical processes on top of such interconnected structures. The resulting framework plays a crucial role in helping to achieve a thorough, accurate understanding of complex systems. The study of multilayer networks has also revealed new physical phenomena that remain hidden when using ordinary graphs, the traditional network representation. Here we survey progress towards attaining a deeper understanding of spreading processes on multilayer networks, and we highlight some of the physical phenomena related to spreading processes that emerge from multilayer structure.

  Functional multiplex pagerank

Europhysics Letters 116, 28004 - 10.1209/0295-5075/116/28004 - 2016

J. Iacovacci, C. Rahmede, A. Arenas and G. Bianconi


Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode c.elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so called "pattern to success".

  Untangling the role of diverse social dimensions in the diffusion of microfinance

Applied Network Science 1:14 - 10.1007/s41109-016-0016-x - 2016

E. Omodei and A. Arenas


Ties between individuals on a social network can represent different dimensions of interactions, and the spreading of information and innovations on these networks could potentially be driven by some dimensions more than by others. In this paper we investigate this issue by studying the diffusion of microfinance within rural India villages and accounting for the whole multilayer structure of the underlying social networks. We define a new measure of node centrality, diffusion versatility, and show that this is a better predictor of microfinance participation rate than previously introduced measures defined on aggregated single-layer social networks. Moreover, we untangle the role played by each social dimension and find that the most prominent role is played by the nodes that are central on layers concerned with trust, shedding new light on the key triggers of the diffusion of microfinance.

  Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion

PNAS 113, 13708 - https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1604401113 - 2016

J.A. Baggio, S.B. BurnSilver, A. Arenas, J.S. Magdanzd, G.P. Kofinasd, M. De Domenico


Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  Modeling Structure and Resilience of the Dark Network

ArXiv:1612.01284 - - 2016

M. De Domenico, A. Arenas


While the statistical and resilience properties of the Internet are no more changing significantly across time, the Darknet, a network devoted to keep anonymous its traffic, still experiences rapid changes to improve the security of its users. Here, we study the structure of the Darknet and we find that its topology is rather peculiar, being characterized by non-homogenous distribution of connections -- typical of scale-free networks --, very short path lengths and high clustering -- typical of small-world networks -- and lack of a core of highly connected nodes. We propose a model to reproduce such features, demonstrating that the mechanisms used to improve cyber-security are responsible for the observed topology. Unexpectedly, we reveal that its peculiar structure makes the Darknet much more resilient than the Internet -- used as a benchmark for comparison at a descriptive level -- to random failures, targeted attacks and cascade failures, as a result of adaptive changes in response to the attempts of dismantling the network across time.

Any physical system can be viewed from the perspective that information is implicitly represented in its state. However, the quantification of this information when it comes to complex networks has remained largely elusive. In this work, we use techniques inspired by quantum statistical mechanics to define an entropy measure for complex networks and to develop a set of information-theoretic tools, based on network spectral properties, such as Renyi q-entropy, generalized Kullback-Leibler and Jensen-Shannon divergences, the latter allowing us to define a natural distance measure between complex networks. First we show that by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between an observed network and a parametric network model, inference of model parameter(s) by means of maximum-likelihood estimation can be achieved and model selection can be performed appropriate information criteria. Second, we show that the information-theoretic metric quantifies the distance between pairs of networks and we can use it, for instance, to cluster the layers of a multilayer system. By applying this framework to networks corresponding to sites of the human microbiome, we perform hierarchical cluster analysis and recover with high accuracy existing community-based associations. Our results imply that spectral based statistical inference in complex networks results in demonstrably superior performance as well as a conceptual backbone, filling a gap towards a network information theory.

  Collective frequency variation in network synchronization and reverse PageRank

Physical Review E 93, 042314 - https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.93.042314 - 2016

PS. Skardal, D. Taylor, J. Sun, and A. Arenas


A wide range of natural and engineered phenomena rely on large networks of interacting units to reach a dynamical consensus state where the system collectively operates. Here we study the dynamics of self-organizing systems and show that for generic directed networks the collective frequency of the ensemble is not the same as the mean of the individuals' natural frequencies. Specifically, we show that the collective frequency equals a weighted average of the natural frequencies, where the weights are given by an outflow centrality measure that is equivalent to a reverse PageRank centrality. Our findings uncover an intricate dependence of the collective frequency on both the structural directedness and dynamical heterogeneity of the network, and also reveal an unexplored connection between synchronization and PageRank, which opens the possibility of applying PageRank optimization to synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of collective frequency variation in real-world networks by considering the UK and Scandinavian power grids.

  Erosion of synchronization: Coupling heterogeneity and network structure

Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 323, 40-48 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2015.10.015 - 2016

PS. Skardal, D. Taylor, J. Sun, and A. Arenas


We study the dynamics of network-coupled phase oscillators in the presence of coupling frustration. It was recently demonstrated that in heterogeneous network topologies, the presence of coupling frustration causes perfect phase synchronization to become unattainable even in the limit of infinite coupling strength. Here, we consider the important case of heterogeneous coupling functions and extend previous results by deriving analytical predictions for the total erosion of synchronization. Our analytical results are given in terms of basic quantities related to the network structure and coupling frustration. In addition to fully heterogeneous coupling, where each individual interaction is allowed to be distinct, we also consider partially heterogeneous coupling and homogeneous coupling in which the coupling functions are either unique to each oscillator or identical for all network interactions, respectively. We demonstrate the validity of our theory with numerical simulations of multiple network models, and highlight the interesting effects that various coupling choices and network models have on the total erosion of synchronization. Finally, we consider some special network structures with well-known spectral properties, which allows us to derive further analytical results.

  Nonlinear Dynamics on Interconnected Networks

Physica D; Volumes 323–324 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2016.03.016 - 2016

M. De Domenico, A. Arenas


Networks of dynamical interacting units can represent many complex systems, from the human brain to transportation systems and societies. The study of these complex networks, when accounting for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, especially because its representational power in the description of users’ interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) [1], or in representing different transportation modes in urban networks [2,3]. The general name coined for these networks is multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction (see Fig. 1). In the last years, it has been a boosted interest in the analysis of the structure and dynamics on multilayer networks [4–7], essentially because the well-known theory of complex networks developed for the study of a single layer network has to be revisited when analyzing multilayer networks. Moreover, the outcome of the analysis has revealed that new emergent physical phenomena can appear as a direct consequence of the multilayer structure. In particular, the analysis of the robustness of the structure in the presence of perturbations or defects, as well as the cascade propagation of failures has focussed the analysis of important contributions in the field [4,8–13]. From the physics point of view, the study of simple diffusion processes (or more complex like epidemic spreading, etc.) has driven the understanding of the interplay between dynamical processes and structure in the subject [11,14–16] From the mathematical point of view, the new level of complexity required the definition of a novel mathematical framework [17], based on tensorial algebra, for their representation and their structural reduction to simpler subsets of networks [18]. The outgrowth of these mathematical approaches is the development of new structural descriptors, from centrality measures [19–24] to partitions in communities to describe the me

  Bond percolation on multiplex networks

Physical Review X 6, 021002 - https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.021002 - 2016

A. Hackett, D. Cellai, S. Gómez, A. Arenas and J.P. Gleeson


We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multiplex network constructed from London rail and European air transportation data sets.

  Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

Frontiers in Neuroscience 10, 326 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00326 - 2016

M. De Domenico,S. Sasai, A. Arenas


Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches.

  Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

Network Science - https://doi.org/10.1017/nws.2016.15 - 2016

E. Omodei, M. De Domenico, A. Arenas


Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank universities and countries.

  Congestion Induced by the Structure of Multiplex Networks

Physical Review Lett. 116, 108701 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.108701 - 2016

A. Solé-Ribalta, S. Gómez, A. Arenas


Multiplex networks are representations of multilayer interconnected complex networks where the nodes are the same at every layer. They turn out to be good abstractions of the intricate connectivity of multimodal transportation networks, among other types of complex systems. One of the most important critical phenomena arising in such networks is the emergence of congestion in transportation flows. Here, we prove analytically that the structure of multiplex networks can induce congestion for flows that otherwise would be decongested if the individual layers were not interconnected. We provide explicit equations for the onset of congestion and approximations that allow us to compute this onset from individual descriptors of the individual layers. The observed cooperative phenomenon is reminiscent of Braess’ paradox in which adding extra capacity to a network when the moving entities selfishly choose their route can in some cases reduce overall performance. Similarly, in the multiplex structure, the efficiency in transportation can unbalance the transportation loads resulting in unexpected congestion.

   Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

Physica D 323-324, 73 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2016.01.002 - 2016

A. Sole-Ribalta, M. De Domenico, S. Gómez, A. Arenas


Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influential nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  Enhancing the stability of the synchronization of multivariable coupled oscillators

Physical Review E 92, 032804 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032804 - 2015

R. Sevilla-Escoboza, R. Gutierrez, G. Huerta-Cuellar, S. Boccaletti, J. Gómez-Gardeñes, A. Arenas and J. M. Buldú


Synchronization processes in populations of identical networked oscillators are the focus of intense studies in physical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we analyze the stability of the synchronization of a network of oscillators coupled through different variables. Under the assumption of an equal topology of connections for all variables, the master stability function formalism allows assessing and quantifying the stability properties of the synchronization manifold when the coupling is transferred from one variable to another. We report on the existence of an optimal coupling transference that maximizes the stability of the synchronous state in a network of Rossler-like oscillators. Finally, we design an experimental implementation (using nonlinear electronic circuits) which grounds the robustness of the theoretical predictions against parameter mismatches, as well as against intrinsic noise of the system.

  Layer-layer competition in multiplex complex networks

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373: 20150117 - DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2015.0117 - 2015

J. Gómez-Gardeñes, M. de Domenico, G. Gutiérrez, A. Arenas, S. Gómez


The coexistence of multiple types of interactions within social, technological and biological networks has moved the focus of the physics of complex systems towards a multiplex description of the interactions between their constituents. This novel approach has unveiled that the multiplex nature of complex systems has strong influence in the emergence of collective states and their critical properties. Here we address an important issue that is intrinsic to the coexistence of multiple means of interactions within a network: their competition. To this aim, we study a two-layer multiplex in which the activity of users can be localized in each of the layers or shared between them, favouring that neighbouring nodes within a layer focus their activity on the same layer. This framework mimics the coexistence and competition of multiple communication channels, in a way that the prevalence of a particular communication platform emerges as a result of the localization of user activity in one single interaction layer. Our results indicate that there is a transition from localization (use of a preferred layer) to delocalization (combined usage of both layers) and that the prevalence of a particular layer (in the localized state) depends on the structural properties.

  Ranking nodes in interconnected multilayer networks reveals their versatility

Nature Communications 6, 6868 - DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7868 - 2015

M. De Domenico, A. Sole-Ribalta, E. Omodei, S. Gomez, A. Arenas


Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obtained by aggregating the multilayer network leads, in general, to relevant differences in ranking the nodes by their importance.

  Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

Frontiers in Physics 3, 61 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2015.00061 - 2015

A. Sole-Ribalta, C. Granell, S. Gómez and A. Arenas


The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  Structural reducibility of multilayer networks

Nature Communications 6, 6864 - DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7864 - 2015

M. De Domenico, V. Nicosia, A. Arenas, V. Latora


Many complex systems can be represented as networks composed by distinct layers, interacting and depending on each others. For example, in biology, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, with thousands of protein-protein interactions each. A fundamental open question is then how much information is really necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayer complex system, and if and when some of the layers can indeed be aggregated. Here we introduce a method, based on information theory, to reduce the number of layers in multilayer networks, while minimizing information loss. We validate our approach on a set of synthetic benchmarks, and prove its applicability to an extended data set of protein-genetic interactions, showing cases where a strong reduction is possible and cases where it is not. Using this method we can describe complex systems with an optimal trade--off between accuracy and complexity.

  Identifying modular flows on multilayer networks reveals highly overlapping organization in interconnected systems

Physical Review X 5, 011027 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011027 - 2015

M. De Domenico, A. Lancichinetti, A. Arenas, M. Rosvall


Unveiling the community structure of networks is a powerful methodology to comprehend interconnected systems across the social and natural sciences. To identify different types of functional modules in interaction data aggregated in a single network layer, researchers have developed many powerful methods. For example, flow-based methods have proven useful for identifying modular dynamics in weighted and directed networks that capture constraints on flow in the systems they represent. However, many networked systems consist of agents or components that exhibit multiple layers of interactions. Inevitably, representing this intricate network of networks as a single aggregated network leads to information loss and may obscure the actual organization. Here we propose a method based on compression of network flows that can identify modular flows in non-aggregated multilayer networks. Our numerical experiments on synthetic networks show that the method can accurately identify modules that cannot be identified in aggregated networks or by analyzing the layers separately. We capitalize on our findings and reveal the community structure of two multilayer collaboration networks: scientists affiliated to the Pierre Auger Observatory and scientists publishing works on networks on the arXiv. Compared to conventional aggregated methods, the multilayer method reveals smaller modules with more overlap that better capture the actual organization.

   Structure of triadic relations in multiplex networks

New Journal of Physics 17, 073029 - - 2015

E. Cozzo, M. Kivela, M. De Domenico, A. Sole-Ribalta, A. Arenas, S. Gomez, M. Porter and Y. Moreno


Recent advances in the study of networked systems have highlighted that our interconnected world is composed of networks that are coupled to each other through different layers€™ that each represent one of many possible subsystems or types of interactions. Nevertheless, it is traditional to aggregate multilayer networks into a single weighted network in order to take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic, as important information can be lost as a result. It is therefore important to develop multilayer generalizations of network concepts. In this paper, we analyze triadic relations and generalize the idea of transitivity to multiplex networks. By focusing on triadic relations, which yield the simplest type of transitivity, we generalize the concept and computation of clustering coefficients to multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of such networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why one must take great care when generalizing standard network concepts to multiplex networks. We also derive analytical expressions for our clustering coefficients for ensemble averages of networks in a family of random multiplex networks. Our analysis illustrates that social networks have a strong tendency to promote redundancy by closing triads at every layer and that they thereby have a different type of multiplex transitivity from transportation networks, which do not exhibit such a tendency. These insights are invisible if one only studies aggregated networks.

  Centrality Rankings in Multiplex Networks

Proceedings of the 2014 ACM conference on Web science, 149-155 - - 2014

A. Sole-Ribalta, M. De Domenico, S. Gomez, A. Arenas


The vertiginous increase of e-platforms for social communication has boosted the ways people use to interact each other. Micro-blogging and decentralized posts are used indistinctly for social interaction, usually by the same individuals acting simultaneously in the different platforms. Multiplex networks are the natural abstraction representation of such "layered" relationships and others, like co-authorship. Here, we re-define the betweenness centrality measure to account for the inherent structure of multiplex networks and propose an algorithm to compute it in an efficient way. To show the necessity and the advantage of the proposed definition, we analyze the obtained centralities for two real multiplex networks, a social multiplex of two layers obtained from Twitter and Instagram and a co-authorship network of four layers obtained from arXiv. Results show that the proposed definition provides more accurate results than the current approach of evaluating the classical betweenness centrality on the aggregated network, in particular for the middle ranked nodes. We also analyze the computational cost of the presented algorithm.

  Navigability of interconnected networks under random failures

PNAS 11, 8351 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1318469111 - 2014

M. De Domenico, A. Sole-Ribalta, S. Gomez, A. Arenas


Assessing the navigability of interconnected networks (transporting information, people, or goods) under eventual random failures is of utmost importance to design and protect critical infrastructures. Random walks are a good proxy to determine this navigability, specifically the coverage time of random walks, which is a measure of the dynamical functionality of the network. Here, we introduce the theoretical tools required to describe random walks in interconnected networks accounting for structure and dynamics inherent to real systems. We develop an analytical approach for the covering time of random walks in interconnected networks and compare it with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Generally speaking, interconnected networks are more resilient to random failures than their individual layers per se, and we are able to quantify this effect. As an application, which we illustrate by considering the public transport of London, we show how the efficiency in exploring the multiplex critically depends on layers’ topology, interconnection strengths, and walk strategy. Our findings are corroborated by data-driven simulations, where the empirical distribution of check-ins and checks-out is considered and passengers travel along fastest paths in a network affected by real disruptions. These findings are fundamental for further development of searching and navigability strategies in real interconnected systems.

  Competing spreading processes on multiplex networks: Awareness and epidemics

Physical Review E 90, 012808 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.012808 - 2014

C. Granell, S. Gomez and A. Arenas


Epidemic-like spreading processes on top of multilayered interconnected complex networks reveal a rich phase diagram of intertwined competition effects. A recent study by the authors [Granell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 128701 (2013)] presented the analysis of the interrelation between two processes accounting for the spreading of an epidemics, and the spreading of information awareness to prevent its infection, on top of multiplex networks. The results in the case in which awareness implies total immunization to the disease, revealed the existence of a metacritical point at which the critical onset of the epidemics starts depending on the reaching of the awareness process. Here we present a full analysis of these critical properties in the more general scenario where the awareness spreading does not imply total immunization, and where infection does not imply immediate awareness of it. We find the critical relation between both competing processes for a wide spectrum of parameters representing the interaction between them. We also analyze the consequences of a massive broadcast of awareness (mass media) on the final outcome of the epidemic incidence. Importantly enough, the mass media makes the metacritical point to disappear. The results reveal that the main finding i.e. existence of a metacritical point, is rooted on the competition principle and holds for a large set of scenarios.

  Mathematical Formulation of Multi-Layer Networks

Phys. Rev. X 3, 041022 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041022 - 2013

M. De Domenico, A. Sole-Ribalta, E. Cozzo, M. Kivela, Y. Moreno, M. A. Porter, S. Gomez, A. Arenas


A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems is very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing "traditional" network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multi-layer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multi-layer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes ---including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, Von Neumann entropy, and diffusion--- for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multi-layer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

  Spectral properties of the Laplacian of multiplex networks

Phys. Rev. E 88, 032807 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.032807 - 2013

A. Sole-Ribalta, M. De Domenico, N. E. Kouvaris, A. Diaz-Guilera, S. Gomez, A. Arenas


One of the more challenging tasks in the understanding of dynamical properties of models on top of complex networks is to capture the precise role of multiplex topologies. In a recent paper, Gomez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 028701 (2013)] proposed a framework for the study of diffusion processes in such networks. Here, we extend the previous framework to deal with general configurations in several layers of networks, and analyze the behavior of the spectrum of the Laplacian of the full multiplex. We derive an interesting decoupling of the problem that allow us to unravel the role played by the interconnections of the multiplex in the dynamical processes on top of them. Capitalizing on this decoupling we perform an asymptotic analysis that allow us to derive analytical expressions for the full spectrum of eigenvalues. This spectrum is used to gain insight into physical phenomena on top of multiplex, specifically, diffusion processes and synchronizability.

  Abrupt transition in the structural formation of interconnected networks

Nature Physics, 9, 717 - doi:10.1038/nphys2761 - 2013

F. Radicchi and A. Arenas


Our current world is linked by a complex mesh of networks where information, people and goods flow. These networks are interdependent each other, and present structural and dynamical features different from those observed in isolated networks. While examples of such “dissimilar” properties are becoming more abundant, for example diffusion, robustness and competition, it is not yet clear where these differences are rooted in. Here we show that the composition of independent networks into an interconnected network of networks undergoes a structurally sharp transition as the interconnections are formed. Depending of the relative importance of inter and intra-layer connections, we find that the entire interdependent system can be tuned between two regimes: in one regime, the various layers are structurally decoupled and they act as independent entities; in the other regime, network layers are indistinguishable and the whole system behave as a single-level network. We analytically show that the transition between the two regimes is discontinuous even for finite size networks. Thus, any real-world interconnected system is potentially at risk of abrupt changes in its structure that may reflect in new dynamical properties.

  Dynamical interplay between awareness and epidemic spreading in multiplex networks

Physical Review Letters, 111, 128701 - DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.128701 - 2013

C. Granell, S. Gomez and A. Arenas


We present the analysis of the interrelation between two processes accounting for the spreading of an epidemic, and the information awareness to prevent its infection, on top of multiplex networks. This scenario is representative of an epidemic process spreading on a network of persistent real contacts, and a cyclic information awareness process diffusing in the network of virtual social contacts between the same individuals. The topology corresponds to a multiplex network where two diffusive processes are interacting affecting each other. The analysis using a microscopic Markov chain approach reveals the phase diagram of the incidence of the epidemics and allows us to capture the evolution of the epidemic threshold depending on the topological structure of the multiplex and the interrelation with the awareness process. Interestingly, the critical point for the onset of the epidemics has a critical value (metacritical point) defined by the awareness dynamics and the topology of the virtual network, from which the onset increases and the epidemics incidence decreases

  Diffusion dynamics on multiplex networks

Physical Review Letters, 110, 028701 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.028701 - 2013

S. Gomez, A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Gomez-Gardenes, C.J. Perez-Vicente, Y. Moreno and A. Arenas


We study the time scales associated with diffusion processes that take place on multiplex networks, i.e., on a set of networks linked through interconnected layers. To this end, we propose the construction of a supra-Laplacian matrix, which consists of a dimensional lifting of the Laplacian matrix of each layer of the multiplex network. We use perturbative analysis to reveal analytically the structure of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the complete network in terms of the spectral properties of the individual layers. The spectrum of the supra-Laplacian allows us to understand the physics of diffusionlike processes on top of multiplex networks.